Economic potentials of Kurdistan Province in the fields of Water, Agriculture and Natural Resources 

The Geographical Location of Kurdistan Province 

Kurdistan province ,with an area of 28203 square klometers,is one of the western provinces of Iran, adjacent to west Azarbaijan, Zanjan, Hamedan, and Kermanshah provinces and borders Iraq , having more than 230 kilometers of shared border with Iraq. The Geographical coordinates of the Province are from 34 degrees 44 minutes to 36 degrees 30 minutes of northern latitude and from 42 degrees 31 minutes to 48 degrees 16 minutes of eastern longitude. The capital of the province is Sanandaj, which is 1373 meters above sea level.
The other cities of the province are: Saqez , Marivan , Qurveh , Baneh , Bijar , Dehgolan ,Divandarreh, Kamyaran and Sarvabad.

Physical' &.Climatic Features of Kurdistan Province
Feature Amount Unit
Area 28203 Square Kilometers
Population 1500000 Person
RelativeconcentrationOf population 53 Person in square kilometer
Capitalof the province Sanandaj -
Annualprecipitationof the Capitalof the province 505 Milimeter
Annual temperature of the Capital of iIle province 13.6 Degressof Centigrade
Highest point of the province 3262 Meter (Mount Badr in Qurveh)
Lowest point of the province 750 Meter (outlet ofSirwan Basin)
Maximum relative humidity in June (capital of the province) 62 Percent

Agriculture and Gardening 

The area of farm lands of Kurdistan Province is about 1100000 hectares of which 700000 hectares are allocated to the cultivation of different kinds of crops annualy. 15 percent of the whole lands under cultivation in the province is allocated to irrigated cultivation. There are 12 fertile and rich plains, with an area of about 218600 hectares, which are mainly located in Qurveh, Bijar, Dehgolan, Divandarreh, Marivan and Kamyaran.
Some measures have been taken to produce different kinds of agricultural crops. Annual production of more than 480000 tons of wheat, 42000 tons of barley, 250000 tons of potato, beet, and a great deal of colsa, summer crops, vegetables, etc, all having high quality, better reveals the status of the province from the viewpoint of producing agricultural crops.
Providing necessary facilities, turning dry farming into irrigated farming and utilizing modern technologies cause production to increase many times as much as now. Industries, which are used to transform and produce agricultural crops, can considerably increase provincial portion from theviewpoint of economic indicators (indexes).

Table of production of forming and gardening crops
produet quantity unit
Farming crops 885 1000 tons
Gardening crops 130 1000 tons
Wheat 482 1000 tons
Barly 42 1000 tons
potato 250 1000 tons
strawberry 25 1000 tons
Nuts 10 1000 tons
Grapes 61 1000 tons
Grains 40 1000 tons

With regard to the existence of steep lands and mountainous slopes, dry farming lands have been deserted and the lands of neighboring rivers with increased precipitation, gardening and cultivation of fruit trees have a great importance in the province. Meanwhile, the potential of their development exists several times as much as current capacity. Viticulture (dry and irrigated), the cultivation of strawberry, nut and almond trees, apple, peach, apricot, etc on fertile lands in the province are very economical.
Kurdistan province is one of the pioneers in the country in the field of strawberry cultivation and has a special publicity. With regard to the existence of about 25000 tons surplus of annual production (in current situation), changing and developing it into byproducts, packaging, protection and exporting it to other areas, are factors which can cause further development of these significant crops in the province, by appropriate and principled planning and essential investment.
In the field of grapes cultivation, the province has favorable situation and about 50 percent of fields in the province has been allotted to vine cultivation and more than 60000 tons of various kinds of grapes are sent outto the markets annually, including Ragham Khushnaw (meaning Black grapes).
At the same time, grapes have a lot of byb-products, which can play an important role in the economy of the province, through transformer industries. Production and cultivation of crops like cucumber, tomato, watermelon, onion, vegetables, etc have a great popularity particularly in 5anandaj and Qurveh. Thousands of hectares of irrigated farms are allotted to the cultivation of these kinds of crops. Generally, developing gardens is one of the strategies to employ most of people and improve most of the crops. That's to say, each person can be employed in each 1.3 hectare, thus in lieu of 10000 hectares increase of farms under - cultivation, the way is paved for the employment of 7500 people, and Therefore, 150000 tons are added to the production of gardening crops in the province. Using modern technologies along with production increase per area unit will lead to the development of quantity and quality of the crops in the province.

Water Resources 

Kurdistan province, having a precipitation of about 500 millimeters (more than two times as much as average precipitation in Iran), is one of the most waterful provinces in the country, so that with 1.7 percent of area in Iran, receives 3.5 percent of the runoffs ofthe country.
The conditions of water resources in the province in the field of basins are mentioned below:

Sefid Rood, Watershed 

Sefid Rood, Watershed with an area of 13450 square Kilometers, receives one billion cubic meters of ground waters in the province. Great rivers like,Ghezel Clan, Taluoar, Shoor, Clan Darreh, are located in this basin, and flat plains in the province mainly belong to the ridge of this river. This basin is full of underground water resources, so deep and half- deep wells have been dug and exploited in Qurveh and Dehgolan plains. Projects such as feeding irrigable area, distributing and controlling flood waters, organizing and designing operations can be performed in these areas which can lead to increase in exploitation capacity of ground and underground waters, as well as area under cultivation of farming lands. For the time being, practical operations of Golbolagh, Siah Zakh, Sang Siah and Cheragh Veis dams and also studies upon Ale Darreh and Soral are under process which can play a great role in developing economic activities relating to water and agriculture sector in these areas.
From the viewpoint of natural and topographical conditions, this basin has a potential of more than 10 great dams and several little dams that if constructed, they can control plenty of ground water resources which are now being wasted.

Sirwan Aquiverous Basin 

This basin, having an area of 7500 square kilometers, is one of the most waterfowl aquiverous basins in Iran and Kurdistan, so that 2.8 billion cubic meters of ground waters in the province flow in the basin, The Sirwan River, with the length of 213 kilometers, is one of the longest and most waterful rivers in kurdistan. The most famous rivers are: Gardalan, and Razab.
The topographical and morphological conditions which are peculiar to the rivers in the vicinity the Sirwan River, have paved the way for the construction of important economic projects in the area including large dams in order to irrigate agricultural lands, producing energy, growing and hunting aquatic animals, tourism industry and manufacturing great industries which need a lot of water.
Gheshlagh dam in Sanandaj with the capacity of 224 million cubic meters is among the dams which provides drinking water for sanandaj. For the time being, Gawshan, and Garan dams in Marivan, are under construction; and Zarivar dam has been constructed in order to increase its capacity from 35 million cubic meters to 90 million cubic meters, with the height of 5 meters.
Generally, Sirwan basin, from the view of water resources, has a great potential and can result in improving economic factors in this province.

Zarrineh Aquiverous Basin 

This basin, with an area of 4800 square kilometers, contains 1.60 billion cubic meters of ground waters in the province. Saqez dam is one of the greatest dams in Iran (with the capacity of 648 million cubic meters), it is fed by Khorkhoreh, Saroogh and Saqez Chai rivers.
For the time being Cheragh Veis dam, on Cham Khan river, with the capadty of 73.6 million cubic meters is under construction to provide water for cities such as Saqez and Baneh and to irrigate 5000 hectare of lands near dam water. Sonatah, Markhoz and the great project of pumpage station of Lagzi is under study.

Choman and Ghezel chah Aquiverous Basin 

The area of this basin is a bout 1550 square kilometers and contains 820 millioncubic meters of ground waters, Baneh city is located in this basin. Its main rivers are: lab, Booin, and Ghezelchahsood.

Raz Awar Aquiferous Basin (Karkheh) 

The area of this basin is about 500 square Kilometers,wich is considered as one of the main branches of the great basin of (Karkheh)in Iran. Its watering capacity is 120 millioncubic meters annually.
Kamyaranplainis one of the most fertile plains in Kurdistan.In order to provideirrigatingwater for lands in area, the operations of Gawshan great dan, 45 Kilometerssouth of Sanandaj,on Gaveh Roodriver,withthe capacityof 550millioncubicmeters, is under construction.

General situation of water Resources in Kurdistan Province 

General situation of water Resources in Kurdistan Province
Topic Amount Unit perecentage
Capacityof annual Precipitation 14.2 Billion cubic meters 3.5
Annual runoffs 7.8 Billion cubic meters 7.9
Underground water Resources 715 Million cubic meters 2
Capacity of outflows Of the province 6.3 Billion cubic meters -
Water used in Agricultural sector 884.1 Million cubic meters -
Water used and Penetration 1.4 Billion cubic meters 3.57
Evapotranspiration 7.9 Billion cubic meters 2.8

Features of existing dams, under construction and Study in Kurdistan Province 

Features of existing dams, under construction and Study in Kurdistan Province
Name of dam Place of coustruction volume Purpose of construction
Saqez 40 kilometers From Sanandaj 648 Toprovidewaterfor Saqez,Tabriz andto ,irrigate 110000 hectars of lands hear the dam
Gheshlag in Sanandaj 15 kilometers From Sanandaj 224 Previding water for sanandaj, irvigating 3000 hectares of lands near the dam and producing 0.3 Megawatt electricity
Gawshan 45 kilometers from south of Sanandaj 550 To provide drinking water for Komy:ran,and kermanshah, to irrigate 33000 hectars of lands near the dam and to produce11 megawatt electricity
Siah Zakh 7 kilometers from Divandarreh 200 To Irrigate17500 hectares of lands near dam,
Golbolagh 15 kilometersfrom the south of Bijar 8.1 To irrigate of lands near water
Baneh 5 kilometers from northeast of Baneh 4.16 to provide water for Baneh
Garan 10 kilometers from northeast of Marivan 92 To provide water for Marivanand irrigate 6155 hectares of lands near water
Cheragh Veis Saqez 73.6 To providewater for Saqez and Irrigate lands near water
Sange Siah 30 kilometers From Qurveh 10 To irrigate 1570 hectares of lands near water
Sonatah Saqez 28 To irrigate 7000 hectares of lands near water
Soral Qurveh 10 To irrigate 900 hectares of lands near water
AmirAbad Kamyaran 5 To irrigate700 hectares of landsnearwater
Markhoz-e- Saqez Saqez 5.5 To irrigate550 hectares of landsnearwater
AlehDarreh Divandarreh 84 Toirrigate1700hectaresof landsnearwater
Zivieh Kamyaran 6.25 To irrigate 780 hectares of lands near water

Domestic animals and their products in the province 

Due to suitable natural conditions, fresh pastures, rich plants and favorablel climatic characteristics and topography, animal husbandry has been an ancient activity in the province continuing till now, which has made a great number of urban and rural residents busy doing it.
Domestic animals products like: red flesh, milk, cheese, and minor products like: leather and skin, hair and wool are considered as the provincial exports some of the thorough-bred goats, like angora goat(Markhoz), which originate from Kurdistan province have a global publicity.
Its wool has good desirability and is used to produce clothes and other industries. Kurdistan province produces 2.63 percent of red flesh, 2.6 percent of milk, 1.8 percent of chicken in the country. Therefore, it has an excellent position .
Due to more potentials in this field like rich pastures, potential of fodder production, having enough water storage and experts, etc the above- mentioned percentage can be augmented considerably.
Divandarreh, Saqez and Sanandaj have more potentia Is in this field.
Apiculture has an ancient history in the province, too. And this profession is improving for ecological conditions. Its products areexported to domestic andforeign markets.

Statistics of designs and animal husbandry units and their capacity in Kurdistan province 

Statistics of designs and animal husbandry units and their capacity in Kurdistan province
Type of design Number of desing Unit capacity in each cycie Occupationmaking(person)
Growingfleshy poultry 230 3001800 pieces 900
Growingegg-layinghen 14 438000 pieces 90
Growingfleshymotherhen 2 145000 pieces 104
Incubationfactory 1 1200000 pieces 15
Bee(Modem) 935 28198 colonies 429
Bee 1783 29663 colonies 243
FatteningIamb(Industrial) 78 24400 heads 294
FatteningIamb(Semi-industrial) 42 6000 heads 80
Fatteningcalf (Industrial) 32 4090 heads 246
FatteningcaW(Semi-industrial) 30 1475 heads 28
Grawingmilk-producingcows(Industrial) 48 1505 heads 225

Statistics of domestic animal products in the province Kind of product Quantity Unit 

Kind of product quantity Unit
Milk 150000 Ton
Red flesh 18900 Ton
Poultry 15500 Ton
Egg 5700 Ton
Honey 400 Ton
Moher 19 Ton
Wool 1300 Ton
Hair 250 Ton

Provincial potentials in the fields of plant, forest, pasture and byproducts 

Plant coverage in Kurdistan province, includes west forests of oak trees with the area of about 300000 hectares in addition to Marivan and Baneh areas, covers some parts of Kamyaran and Sanandaj . Ordinary tree species includeg Iranian oak , almond, maple tree and pear tree.
The province forests in addition to protect water and soil and provide suitable ecological conditions , have valuable products which can be used for medical and industrial uses like, gum traga canth , tamarisk and gum turpentine.
According to the statistics of General Office of Natural Resources in the province, 25-30 tons of gum tragacanth, 50-70 tons of gum and 1000 tons of Gal can be obtained from the forests in the province annually. This stuff has different uses in industry.
From the view of pasture covering, there are 1200000 hectares of pasture, with annual production of 332750 tons which supply required food for some of the domestic animals in the province.
Kurdistan province is one of the richest provinces in the field of plant species. Rishingers'studies show that 340 forest species and 1094 plan species exist in the province.
However, recent studies by Engineer Maroofi, an Iranian engineer, at Research Center of Natural Resources, show that the number of plant species in the province is more than that Mr.Rishinger reported. New species have been identified and introduced to the public as well.
About 169 plant species of 54 family with medical uses and a great number with industrial uses grow in the province. The main medical species are: common vanilla, sweet root and shallot, which have a great spreading inthe pastures and plant -growing places in the province.


The existence of 28 great permanent rivers and 32000 mouthpiece of streams and a great number of deep and semi - deep wells , channelsand lakes like , Gheshlaghdam, Saqezand Zarivar are suitable places to grow marines in Kurdistan province. Due to favorable quality of running waters and moderate climatic conditions, growing cold - water fishes hasa significant importance in the province.
For the time being, 1927 tons of fish and shrimp are produced in annually growing pools and distributed in the markets. Major andgreat resourcesfor production are:

  • 1-Gheshlaghdam lake, 15 Kilometersfrom Sanandaj.
  • 2- Saqezdam lake,40 Kilometersfrom Saqez.
  • 3- Zarivar lakein Marivan,with area of 800hectares.
  • 4- Under construction and studiesdamswhich will beadded to water resourcesin the nearfuture.
  • 5- rivers
  • 6- Fish- growing pools.
In order to utilize province potentials to produceand increase,the growing of warm water and cold water fishes, significant project have been performed or are being performed of which the most important onesare stated below:


project place Annual capacity (ton) Occupation making (person)
Ghamchighaicomplexofcold-waterfishes 47 Kilometers from hart of Bijar in Ghamchi ghai village 170 128
Palangancomplex of cold-water fishes 45 Kilometers from Kamyaran in Palanganvillage 540 417
Sirwan complex of cold-water fishes Diva Zenaw village and Mariwan 1500 1125
Fish-growingcomplex of hot-waterFishesin saqez Saqez dam 106 million pieces of fish  

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